ECCLESIASTICAL ENTANGLEMENTS DEFENSES

A civil court will only apply Neutral Principles of Law to a dispute if the court holds that the court will not become entangled in ecclesiastical issues. If the court holds there could be entanglement, then a court will not proceed by invoking the Ecclesiastical Abstention Doctrine. Merely because a church claimed there would be entanglement will not make the defense viable. The court must agree.

In Russian Orthodox Convent v Sukharevskaya, 2018 NY Slip Op 08167 (NY App. 2018), the Defendant Nun claimed one of the convent priests was engaged in sexual misconduct. Her allegation did not find favorable review and the ruling bishops directed her to vacate the convent. The Defendant Nun refused to vacate and an ecclesiastical court disciplined her by making her ineligible to wear the apparel of a nun or receive communion for two years. However, this did not silence her and she renewed her complaint about the conduct of the priest. An ecclesiastical court permanently defrocked her and ordered her to vacate. She refused and the convent sued to evict her. In defense of the lawsuit, she claimed the ecclesiastical court was attempting to silence her. The trial court held the nun stated an equitable defense to the eviction and dismissed the eviction. The convent appealed the decision. The appellate court affirmed the trial court on Ecclesiastical Abstention Doctrine grounds holding that to determine whether the eviction was justified would require the court to determine if the defrocking of the nun was in retaliation for whistleblowing.

Generally, a court will find that ownership and possession of church property is subject to Neutral Principles of Law and decide the issue. But, in the rare event the ownership or possession of church property cannot be decided without deciding an ecclesiastical issue, the court will leave it where it finds it. The church and the adverse claimant could literally have to wait for the other to die or compromise, no matter how long that might take.

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