Courts only have authority to the extent of their jurisdiction. If something, someone, or someplace is outside of their jurisdiction, then the court is powerless to proceed for or against that entity. Some states hold that their courts have no subject matter jurisdiction over church governance issues and tend toward almost automatic dismissal of such claims. Generally, the claims are employment claims or church leadership issues. Some states hold that their courts have subject matter jurisdiction but the church may raise the Ecclesiastical Abstention Doctrine as an affirmative defense. As an affirmative defense, the church must prove that the issue raised by the plaintiff’s claims require delving into ecclesiastical matters rather than neutral principles of law, e.g., contract claims.
In Gilmore v Trinity Missionary Baptist Church, Slip Op. (unpublished) (Mich. App. 2018), the appellate court reversed summary judgment for the church. The trial court dismissed the case on the ground the issue presented was a church governance issue. The plaintiff was employed for over thirty years as the church business manager. Under an oral amendment to her employment contract, she alleged she was given five weeks of paid vacation annually. A new pastor, however, was unaware of any such oral amendment. The pastor learned of the Plaintiff’s vacation pay because in his third year he noticed she added five weeks of salary to her payroll when she set up the annual payroll. The plaintiff was given the choice of abiding by the written employment contract, i.e., not receiving the extra five weeks of salary, or retiring. The plaintiff agreed to neither and was terminated. The appellate court reversed solely because the trial court dismissed the case without conducting a factual inquiry into whether the employment claims raised by the Plaintiff implicated the Ecclesiastical Abstention Doctrine. On remand, such an inquiry would have to be conducted.
Churches may still be able to limit the scope of litigation by proving at the outset that the claims presented do intrude on ecclesiastical church governance. For example, a business manager may be more than a mere bookkeeper and may be directly involved in ministry management. As reported herein, some courts will limit discovery to that issue because there is no point in proceeding with the case if it involves ecclesiastical issues. The written employment contract was not the subject of the court opinion and a well-drawn contract might include a description of ecclesiastical job functions to which the employee has agreed by signing the contract.